Takayama is a city located in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The city is fairly old, dating back to the Jomon period. Takayama is best known for its inhabitants expertise in carpentry. It is believed carpenters from Takayama worked on the Imperial Palace in Kyoto and on many of the temples in Kyoto and Nara. The town and its culture, as they exist today, took shape at the end of the 16th century, when the Kanamori clan built Takayama Castle. About a hundred years later the city came under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate. However, the high altitude and separation from other areas of Japan kept the area fairly isolated, allowing Takayama to develop its own culture over about a 300-year period. The city is popularly known as Hida Takayama (the guide books also call it by that name) to differentiate it from other Takayamas. The name 'Takayama' means 'tall mountain'.