Shinmoe-dake is a volcano in Kagoshima Prefecture, and a part of the Mount Kirishima cluster of volcanoes. It is believed to have formed between 7,300 and 25,000 years ago.
Eruptions from Shinmoe-dake were recorded in 1716, 1717, 1771, 1822, 1959, 1991, 2008, 2009, 2011 and 2013.
The 2011 eruptions began on 19 January. On 26 January, at 7:30 AM, increased eruption activity spewed ash over the surrounding area. The ash closed four railroad lines, and some airline service was cancelled due to heavy ash in the air. It was the largest eruption from Shinmoedake since 1959. On 27 January, the volcano alert level was raised to 3.
On 1 February, an even larger eruption sent smoke up to 2.5 km in the air and threw volcanic bombs up to 1.5 km.
During February 2011, a lava dome formed in Shinmoe-dake's crater. On February 17, an evacuation advisory was put in place for the Miyakonojo area for 2,500 people after heavy rains threatened to produce lahars, and at least 63 people evacuated.
On 13 March, two days after the 2011 Tôhoku earthquake, the volcano once again erupted. The eruption forced the evacuation of several hundred residents.
Shinmoe-dake is also notable for having been used as a location in the 1967 James Bond film, You Only Live Twice, as the volcano in which the villains' secret rocket base is located.